著名的史学家萧公权（1897-1981）在其著作《中国乡村——论19世纪帝国的控制》（Rural China : Imperial Control in the Nineteenth Century ）一书认为，宗族社会为了维持自身的程序与道德，依据儒学的基本原则制定“宗规”，对宗族事务实施奖励与惩罚。例如行为优良给予赐匾，行为不检则给予驱逐。或许是年轻气盛，王文褒因违规受罚，令人唏嘘。
王三龙的商号英文名称为“Ong Sam Leong & Co”（王三龙公司），火锯厂称为远利火锯厂，后改为远利源。据1911年《海峡时报》刊登的商业启事，王三龙公司的锯木厂位于加冷河岸，办公室在罗敏申路41号。从广告词上理解，王三龙公司除了经营木材业，也承包各类工程（General Contractors）。后来还创立联合火锯公司（United Sawmills Ltd），由王平福担任董事经理。
从王三龙的木材、石料与砖窑业等生意来看，其贸易网络主要围绕在建筑工程。也因为生意网络之特质，1899年他以王三龙公司的名义，取得圣诞岛磷酸有限公司（The Christmas Island Phosphate Co. Ltd）的承包合同，提供劳工及杂货供应权，这些劳工皆来自中国两广地区。1919年，圣诞岛上发生华工骚乱事件，王文达还前去视察业务。
如果将王三龙视为金侨移民新加坡的第二代，那其裔孙王长辉就是第四代。王长辉（1909-1999）毕业于莱佛士书院，然后前往英国修读法律，1934年取得律师资格后返新，1940年被举为工部局议员。他也是一位杰出的律师，与英国律师黎觉合开一家律师楼。建国总理李光耀从英国毕业返新后，曾受王长辉的邀请，在其律师楼任见习律师。王长辉长期任英籍海峡华人公会（Straits Chinese British Association）会长（英籍海峡华人公会创于1900年，受殖民地政府豁免注册）。然而，由于王长辉所处的时代、社会与教育背景，早年他的思想倾向西化和狭义。1954年，他改变思维，公开鼓励侨生学习中文，声称海峡华人公会是本土华人社团。
Brief translation by Ng Kwok Hua
It was only a few months ago that a good friend of the writer from Kinmen helped the author to unravel the mystery. What happened is that in recent years, the Cultural Department of Kinmen Island has been publishing the histories of the various villages in Kinmen. This Taiwanese friend got wind of the mention of the history of Mr Ong Sam Leong and his family in Kinmen in Dong Sha Village through a book featuring Dong Sha Village. This Taiwanese friend even contacted the author of the book, Wang Jian Cheng, and arranged for a meeting with him at Kinmen. During the meeting, the author,Wang Jian Cheng, shared with this Taiwanese friend, precious historical records of the life of Mr Ong Sam Leong and his family in Dong Sha Village. The mystery of the ancestry of Mr Ong Sam was finally solved. Mr Ong Sam Leong's ancestral lineage was indeed from Dong Sha Village (东沙村), Kinmen Island.
Dong Sha Village is a coastal village located in the Southeast of Kinmen island. Historically, it is a area lacking in natural resources. However, it was known as one of the most important salt-producing coastal areas in the Fujian Minnan region, China.
In the Genealogy Book of the Ong Clan, it was recorded that Ong Sam Leong was the eldest son and had ventured to the British-owned Singapore (出洋英属石叻). Through the Ong Clan Genealogy Book, it was also mentioned that the original name of Ong Sam Leong was Ong Eng Leong or 王应龙 (Hope that my translation of the Chinese characters into the Minnan dialect is correct).
This newspaper article mentioned that when Ong Sam Leong passed on, the land that he was buried in belonged to the Ong Taiyuan 太原 Clan (the Ongs are very proud of the fact that they originate from Taiyuan in Shaanxi Province, China). It was only later that the Municipal Government acquired a part of the land from the Ong Clan to incorporate it into the Bukit Brown Municipal Cemetery.
The writer mentioned that although the tomb of Ong Sam Leong has been discovered at Bukit Brown, it is a pity that no one has yet to locate the tomb of his father. No one actually knows if Ong Sam Leong's father was actually buried in Bukit Brown, even though his Mother's tomb was located just nearby to the tomb of Mr Ong Sam Leong.
The maiden surname of Ong Sam Leong' mother was Tan. According to what was inscribed on her tombstone, Ong Sam Leong's mum passed away on the 7th Day of the seventh month of the Lunar Calendar, 1895 ; and she left behind 3 sons and 2 daughters, of which Ong Sam Leong was the eldest. She also had 4 grandchildren. Her eldest son, Mr Ong Sam Leong passed away in 1918. The second son, Mr Ong Sam Jie 王三杰 (there may be a error in translation to the Minnan dialect) passed on in 1939 and the third son, Ong Sam Bee 王三美 (I translated "美” to "Bee" because my father has a ”美” or "Bee" in this name as well and our ancestry village is also at Kinmen) passed away in 1941.
The writer mentioned that there is a discrepancy of the names of the descendants listed on Ong Sam Leong's tomb and that of his mother's. On his Mother's tomb, there was a grandchild by the name of the Ong Peng Ho but there was no sight of the name of Ong Boon Tat (the eldest son of Ong Sam Leong), whereas on the tomb of Ong Sam Leong, Ong Peng Ho was not inscribed on it but the name of Ong Boon Tat was. The writer deduced that Ong Peng Ho could be Ong Boon Tat because when Granny Ong passed on in 1895, Grandson Ong Boon Tat was already 8 years of age. There was no reason for the omission of his name on her tombstone.
In the article, there was also a little anecdote mentioned of Mr Ong Sam Leong's father. This little chapter was actually passed down through word of mouth over the generations. The Senior Ong actually owned an acre of farm land in his village. However, a dispute arose between him and a fellow Ong Clansman in the village over the rights to a source of water, and when a Senior Clansman came to mediate, Ong Sam Leong's father accidentally caused injury to the mediator (it was not mentioned how he caused the injury). He was given a trial at the ancestral temple by a group of "Respected Elderlies" and the verdict arrived at was to banish the Senior Ong from the village (it was not mentioned if this implicated his entire family). It was mentioned in the article that when the Senior Ong left the village, he swore not to return because his clansmen had forsaken him.
Next, the article moved its focus back to Ong Sam Leong. Ong Sam Leong was born in 1858. When his mother passed on in 1895, he was only 38 years of age.
Ong Sam Leong started his business ventures when he was only 21. He also dabbled in real estate transactions (房地产交易）and made quite a pile. A few years later, he managed to secure the exclusive extraction rights to the Kernaman Wood (a valuable timber in the construction industry) in the states of Pahang and Trengganu.
According to a business notification or ad published in the Straits Times in 1911, Ong's company - Ong Sam Leong and Company had its sawmill (Yuan Li Yuan or 远利源) located at the banks of the Kallang River. The office was located at 41 Robinson Road. According to the same ad, besides being involved in the timber industry, Ong Sam Leong and Company also served as General Contractors for the construction industry. Subsequently, the company set up the United Sawmills Ltd and the Second Son of Ong Sam Leong - Ong Peng Hock 王平福 (once again, I am trying my best to translate to the Minnan or Hokkien pronounciation) was made the Managing Director.
Ong Sam Leong also owned a granite quarry on Pulau Ubin and the quarry was able to supply 1200 tons of granite daily to the Municipal Government for general construction work by 1902.
In addition, Mr Ong Sam Leong also owned a Brickworks on Batam Island known as Long Yuan Yao (龙远窑）.Subsequently, Ong Sam Leong even proclaimed in a newspaper ad that the entire production process of the bricks at his Brickworks was strictly supervised by British craftsmen, and these bricks could withstand fire and are water resistant, and definitely of the finest quality.
According to the newspaper article, the bricks produced by Long Yuan Yao were widely used by the construction industry back then. Feng Shan Temple was one of the building structures that utilised the bricks. Today, if you visit the tomb of Ong Sam Leong and his wife, the bricks produced by his Brickworks could be clearly seen as well.
Through Mr Ong Sam Leong's dominance and extensive network in the construction industry, he also managed to secure the contract for The Christmas Island Phosphate Co. Ltd to supply labour and provisions to the island. The source of workers or coolies on the island was chiefly from the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. In 1919, there was a riot amongst the coolies on Christmas Island and Mr Ong Boon Tat actually went over to the island to survey the situation. By then, Mr Ong Sam Leong was no longer around.
According to the article, Sir Song Ong Siang in his book "A Hundred Years History of the Chinese in Singapore", described Mr Ong Sam Leong as a hardworking man. Mr Ong also possessed strong fortitude, and had keen and astute business acumen despite his limited education. As a result, he was able to build a vast business empire.
According to Sir Song Ong Siang in his book, Mr Ong Sam Leong was not actively involved in matters related to the Kinmen Clan Association. In 1907, together with the Hokkien Bang or Min Bang (闽帮), Mr Ong contributed 400 Straits Dollars in the name of his business, Yuan Li Yuan, to the construction of Tao Nan school. In 1910, under the Leadership of Mr Ong Sam Leong, a group of businessmen surnamed Ong, proposed the improvement of a road connecting the New Heng Shan Hokkien Cemetery and the Seh Ong Clan Cemetery. In the Kusu Island Temple Fu Shan Gong 福山宫, one can also see the donations made by Mr Ong Sam Leong documented and inscribed on its walls. Mr Ong Sam Leong passed away in 1918 and his wife passed on in 1941. Before his passing, there were also reports of Mr Ong Sam Leong's investments in the Rubber Industry and also in Real Estate. He also owned a large tract of rubber plantation in Bukit Panjang.
I would like to offer my opinion on some of the incorrect information from this Chinese article written on Ong Sam Leong ancestry ..
The genealogy book which the writer referenced is Ong Eng Leong / Ong Leong - only one son mentioned in the genealogy.... this is different from the tomb of Ong Sam Leong mother such mentioned 3 sons. Also the writer read the sequence of the sons wrongly , he read from right to left , naming Sam Leong as the oldest, whereas we read the son in the middle as the eldest that is Sam Kiat (b 1854), Sam Leong (b 1857) and Sam Bee (b 1865) , which corresponds to the tombs and tomb records in Bukit Brown. Ong Sam Leong also has 2 sisters Kim Neo (b 1869) and Ping Neo
2) This Ong Leong txt 出洋英属石叻 meaning ventured to the British-owned Singapore.
However, Song Ong Siang book mentioned he was born in Singapore. If Ong Leong was an immigrant, when did he came over to Singapore? He has an elder brother Sam Kiat 3 years older and him , and a younger brother Sam Bee 8 years younger and a younger sister Kim Neo 12 years younger than him. All his brothers were prominent merchants as well.
Ong Kim Neo (photo courtesy of Evelyn Ong)
This is the photograph of Ong Kim Neo, his younger sister. It is hard to imagine that this Bibik has an older brother who immigrate from Kinmen . She was married to Soh Siew Whatt and died in 1931 at the age of 62
Photograph of Ong Sam Leong's family at Bukit Rose, exhibited at the Bukit Brown exhibition in July 2014 at the National Library
3) There is a tomb of Ong Leong found in Seh Ong hill which fit the description given by the genealogy book
Ong Leong tomb dated to 1875 (photo from bukitbrown.info, tag 0578)
Here is an example that match the genealogy record given by the writer - Ong Leong from Kinmen Dongsha, tomb date 1875, found in Ong Clan cemetery.
Unfortunately no date can be found in the genealogy record given by the author, so we cannot be sure that this is the same Ong Leong that venture out to SINGAPORE.
Further reading :https://tombs.bukitbrown.org/2020/07/family-of-ong-sam-leong.html